Kharar, Punjab


In the Indian subcontinent, khes is a thin cotton blanket
used as winter wraps. It was during the Mughal era that it evolved as a cotton blanket. During the 19th and 20th centuries, the Punjab region of undivided India has historically been recognised for producing Khes and a variety of coarse cotton textiles by hand. A single khes can have multiple end uses like floor covering, bed covering, blanket, shawl, etc.

Rural women of Punjab have been weaving khes as a component of their daughter’s trousseau. Its use as a customary coverlet while sleeping or as an item of dowry, makes it a significant traditional textile.  Since it is predominantly woven by women, khes is a domestic craft. Khes are woven on a pit loom using twill or plain weave in a variety of broad and narrow stripe and checks pattern (charkhana). Geometric patterns like triangles, diamond, and polyhedron are used as intricate woven repeats that provide a textural surface to the fabric.

Khes is classified into three varieties on the basis of the
woven structures: Saada, Gumti, and Majnu. Majnu Khes is the most elaborate of the three due to its use of a compound weave known as "Double-cloth”. But,
Majnu Khes was produced in western Punjab with majority of the weavers belonging to Muslim community. So, when the partition happened, the western region came under the teritorry of Pakistan and this led to a hault in the exchange of this textile to India.



Cotton is combed to remove impurities that makes it ready for spinning. This is majorly done by women.


The prepared yarns are then dyed into the required colors using chemical dyes.


Warping is done and the loom is set up after completing drafting & denting. A weaver now begins weaving magic with a khat-khat sound all around.